Pragmatics: Language in context

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is the study of meaning in context dependent on the intentions of participants in a conversational exchange, Pragmatic deals with the meaning of the whole exchange.
Context, intentions and shared knowledge are the key words. Also cultural implications play an important role.
the linguistic context
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also called co-text is the set of other words used in the same sentence
(looking at other words in the sentence to understand what a word means)
physical context
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includes the material objects surrounding the communication event and any other features of the natural world that influence communication.
e.g. furniture and how it is arranged, size of the room, colors, temperature, time of day, etc. If you see a sign like this near a school: SLOW DOWN. PUPILS CROSSING THE STREET.
direct speech acts
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forms used to ask for information
'are you married?’, ‘can they play tennis?’, ‘do you know anything what happened?’
indirect speech acts
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In question like ‘can you pass the wine?’ you don’t want to know if the person is able to pass the wine but you want the wine.
• Locutionary act
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saying something (the locution)
• Illocutionary act
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the performance of an act in saying something
informing, ordering, warning, asking
• Perlocutionary acts
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Speech acts that have and effect on the feelings, thoughts or actions of the listener. In other words, they seek to change minds!
inspiring, persuading or dettering

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